۰۳ خرداد ۱۳۹۴

Title:Using Theater as a Medical Cure and Studying its Effects on the Emotional Characteristics of the Nerves and Sinews
essay subject:Sacred Defense and Play Writing /Author: Majid Amraei
In this research it is tried to investigate the emotional effects (of Theatrical Cure) on the pathology of the injured soldiers who are severely schizophrenic and hospitalized in the Psychiatric Hospital in Sa’adat Abad. In order to reach this goal 26 injured people with the above specifications in a plan composed of two groups with the pre – test of P. The people in these two groups of test and control the candidates were divided in to 2 thirteen persons randomly and based on the Psychological SCL 90 tests and their emotional conditions were conditions have been investigated on 8 dimensions and by planning two groups with the pre – test of P – test it intends to investigate the emotional impact of the cures on the pathology of the patients. . . . .
The role playing has been tested for two months for the test group and then their pathological conditions was conducted through the psychological test of SCL 90 the value of which is accepted both in and out of the country i.e. internationally.
In order to analyze the data the multi – variant co - variance analysis as well as the meaningful level of / 001 have been used. The results of these analyses showed that on the eight levels of malady fear, stress, depression, aggression, physical complaints, obsession and paranoid thinking as well as sensitivity in the mutual relationship there are meaningful differences between the test group and the control group.
1. Schizophrenic: Schizophrenia or psychosis is one of the dominant psychological problems in which the thoughts and feelings as well as understanding of the individual are changed and deviated a lot and this will lead to the final disorder in the performance of that person. Here the theatrical medication can be an applicable means in that it settles a direct relation and a close relation with the individual and it will be useful in dominating on some effective disorders.
2. Scl 90 is a psychological test containing 90 different questions and they are asked the patient on his coming to the psychiatrist and then the answers are categorized and data are extracted from them and in this way the pathological condition of the patient is made clear and then the psychological results of his clinical characteristics are determined; this test is one of the most reliable tests in the field of psychology.

Curing by theater is one of the methods for non – drug medications; it is a scientific research for understanding reality through different methods of theater and the cognition of the clinical characteristics of the individual. In this medication the therapist through the use of special theatrical and psychological techniques tries to decrease the disorders and to strengthen the personal relations of the people who come to be treated. On this bases action, observation and active participations are the three main elements in theatrical medication. In theatrical medication preparation, experience and recording the events in the memories are regarding the main stages in the implementation of the work that the patients are categorized in the preparatory, intermediate and advanced levels and are treated by special methods. . . . . . In the first stage (preparatory) it is possible to make the patient ready by the use of motivation and preparatory exercises and make him believe that he is able and he is capable of making efforts to activate his potentials. At this stage nurturing the body and statement is very important. In the second stage of the exercise, the patients accept their selves and reach self – belief. In this stage the patients accept theatrical medication as a method for their medication and through its acceptance they will show double effort in the way of his / her medication. The third stage is the registration of the events in their memories; this means that the patients records the instruction in his / her mind and through strengthening them he / she will find very clear horizons in his life. In this stage the patients find themselves saved people. Of course it is clear that the eight years of war has had very bad consequences for our society the consequences of which are not hidden from any body in a way that they corrode the spiritual and physical abilities of the people of our society. It is possible to refer to the fighters , freed captives and the revered families of the martyrs as well as the families of the generous people as the groups that have been affected by the consequences of war directly and indirectly. There are a lot of soldiers that have been injured due to some strokes that had bitten their heads, or through the impact of quiver to the skulls; these people are physically and emotionally affected by these scenes; some of these people have come back to their usual and normal life through making use of different theatrical medication and prescribing drugs as well as other professional treatments; some of them need only small needs and some other who form the community of this research are those whose psychological disorders have become worse and their illness has become chronic and their keeping has become very difficult for their families or at some cases even impossible; the present research aims at the investigation of this group. With regard to the noticeable number of this group of the inured people especially those who are psychologically and emotionally affected and have different problems. The necessity of scientific investigation and presenting applicable guidelines and suggestions in order to decrease psychological disorders and facing the problems of this group is made more apparent. In this method one of the methods for the rehabilitation of the people is a special kind of group medication that is known as theatrical medication. In this method the patients shows his own knots, hatred fears and spite as well as his other psychological problems with the play and the creative work and make them clear and in this way he reaches catharsis or emotional cleansing.
Theatrical medication is the most sensible artistic imitation of the real behavior of the people and it expresses a special kind of thinking and cud on the part of the human beings in different conditions. This method of theatrical medication has a special position and defined place in the world; in this regard the ideas of Dr. Jacob Louis Moreno, the Romanian psychiatrist are of special importance. Dr. Hamid Ashkani and Dr. Hassan Hagh Shenas have done some research in this field in the Hafezieh Institute in Shiraz and they have come to good results. In addition there have been some sporadic activities in this regard in some other research centers but the efforts of the medication team at the Psychiatric Hospital of Sa’adat Abad under my supervision (Majeed Amraee) have had some useful results during the last six years on the war stricken groups of psychology and emotion; this research shows only a very narrow part of the activities of the medical group.
The emotional dimensions to be investigated in this research are:
First Dimension: Aggression:
Aggression is a long lasting exciting case that is associated with the tendency towards hurting others and creating pain in the others toward whom this sense is directed. It is different from anger in that anger is a more sever and more biting reaction.
Second Dimension: Stress
A person who is afflicted with stress has a long and severe fear and anxiety; he is afflicted with a long lasting, vague and general and un – clear stress of which he himself is unaware. Its disorders are: the appearance of chronic fear, low levels of bearing the problems and bereavements as well as strong beliefs about the fact that world is a dangerous and horrible place. Such a person lacks self – reliance to a great extent and he is not certain about his abilities and efficiency in the very small affairs.
The third dimension: Obsession:
An obsessive disorder such as the other stressful disorders is the supreme form of the natural obsession that is found in all people. All of us sometimes repeat thoughts and actions the reasons of which are not clear for us such as repeated checking of the handle of the door that is closed. In the case of the disorder of obsession the continuation and severity of these cases are very severe. There are two kinds of obsessions: thought and action; and usually they are available in an individual together and of course it is possible that one may be superior to the other and vice – versa.
Obsession with thinking:
Thoughts and imaginations are repeated and bothersome, that come to the mind; they seem to be un – reasonable and un – controllable in the ideas of the individuals.
Practical Obsession: means a behavior or repeated intrinsic activity that the patients does to decrease the obsessive thinking or to prevent horrible events. This action has no real connection with its superficial goal or obviously has some extreme relations.
Fourth Dimension: Sensitivity in the personal relationships: it is the determinant of a considerable problem in interpersonal relationships. The person concerned has negative expectation in his relation with others. He feels inferior to others and feels doubt and ineptitude in himself.
Fifth Dimension: Physical Complaints:
Physical complaints mean various and repeated complaints of the individual that he seeks medication because of them but there is no real and visible reason for physical causes. The patient should have all the following specifications:
1 . Four signs of pains in different places of his body . . . . .
2 . two signs of ache in stomach and intestine (such as squirt and the sense of vomiting)
3 . a sexual sign except for pain (indifference towards sexual affairs) . . . . .
4 . A fake neurological Sign (such as change signs) . . . . .

Sixth Dimension: Psychosis includes disorder in which thinking disorders and unusual interpretations of reality is seen to accompany obsession and delirium. Its obvious characteristics are: having disorder in interpreting reality, understanding and application of the cognitive powers, emotions, motives and behavioral and oral behaviors as well as characteristic disorders and returning to the period before growth, lack of understanding and insight of identity as well as the reasons and the severity of the illness itself (Shamloo, 1382).
Seventh Dimension: Paranoid Imaginations: It is a psychotic disorder, in which continuous delirium is prevalent such as sexual delirium, feeling superior, jealousy and hurt as well as harm and physical delirium. The unknown kind of paranoia is rare in which the individual is afflicted with an extensive and expanded web of deliriums with thoughts of feeling superior. This illness usually takes the process of being chronic but the other parts of the personality remain intact and safe (Shamloo, 1382).
Eighth Dimension: Depression . . . . .
In the disorder of depression the patient is very un – interested in the daily life affairs; he feels severely lonely and secluded as well as ostracized; he cries easily and it is possible that he eats very small or very huge amount of food. The main characteristics of those who are afflicted with depression are: over sensitivity, reliance on others, lack of ability in showing their anger to the environment directly, self – torture instead of criticizing the environment and criticizing oneself because of the failures and non – performance as well as shame and introspection (Shamloo, 1382). The disorder of depression includes mono – dimensional depression and two – dimensional disorders (Saied Mohammadi , 1380 ) .
Ninth Dimension: Fear Malady. . . . .
Fear malady is considered as a pathological illness; phobia is a fearful shirk and it is the result of fear. It has no concordance with the degree of fear that a thing or a special condition that might cause and the patient consider it baseless. While extreme fear of height and encircled place and . . . . . . . is so fearful that it leads to the disorder in life and it is at this time that phobia is at work. Some of the most common phobia are : Phobia of the enclosed places, Agoraphobia (fear of the public places) and phobia of height (Dehestani , 1384 ) . . . . . .
A . General Goal:
The present research aim at determining the psychological effect of theatrical medication on the pathological conditions of the schizophrenic inured people hospitalized in the Psychiatry Hospital of Sa’adat Abad in Tehran.
B. Special Goal:
1 . Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of the depression among the injured soldiers of the war .
2 . Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of the anxiety among injured soldiers of the war .
3 . Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of the aggression among the injured soldiers of the war .
4. Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of physical complaints among the injured soldiers of the war .

5 . Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of malady fear among the injured soldiers of the war .
6 . Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of the depressed injured soldiers of the war .
7 . Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of Paranoid thoughts among the injured soldiers of the war .
8 . Determining the effects of psychological roles on the decrease of psychosis among the injured soldiers of the war .

With regard to the background of the research in this field and the questions that were addressed it is expected that the psychological role playing leads to decrease of stress, degree of depression and aggression as well as physical complaints and the degree of malady fears, the degree of paranoid thinking as well as the degree of sensitivity and the mutual relation and the degree of psychosis among the chronic schizophrenic injured soldiers survived from the war.
Definition of the Variants:
What is meant by role playing?
Psychological role playing is a medication technique on the basis of extemporariness on the theatrical scenes; the players have similar problems to those of the injured soldiers because of similar psychological problems. Theatrical medicine doctors usually take part in the play and they give direction to it at the same time.
Who is Janbaz?
Janbaz is a person, who has been injured or has become crippled psychologically and emotionally in the war fronts or other war situations by bombardments, air to surface missiles or at the scenes of preparation and defense or at time when they were hit by the waves; or when they hear sorrowful and woeful news.
What is schizophrenia?
It is severe psychotic disorder characterized by psychosis (also characterized by agitation, catatonia, confusion, hallucinations, unusual behavior and extensive withdrawal); the schizophrenic signs are difficulty in preservation and concentration and careful attention as well as in the formation of the concepts. The schizophrenic signs have a very bad effect on the thinking ability, sensations, behaviors and social as well as occupational performance of the individuals in a way that the patient is set against his functional capabilities in comparison with the primary life aspects such as self – care; he is in need of medication and long lasting psychological surveillance.
Operational Definitions:
What is psychological role playing?
In this research psychological role playing is a method has been conducted by 13 schizophrenic janbaz, with the help of the medication team, were hospitalized in Psychiatric Hospital of Sa’adat Abad in Tehran for about 12 sessions and in the form of a group work in which the Janbazan (Plural form of janbaz) played roles ad lib and reached a stage of outpouring anxiety.
The main goal in the conduction of this medication process is to help the patients for the betterment of their conditions as well as teaching them some skills, personal skills and to take care of themselves, social and occupational skills in the form of role playing.
Who is a schizophrenic Janbaz?
In this research a schizophrenic Janbaz is a person who is diagnosed as schizophrenic by the psychiatrists and it has been registered in his file; he has come out of the chronic phase and is hospitalized in the hospital for the continuation of his medication.
What is meant by the psychological pathology?
The condition of psychological pathology in this research is investigated through a SCL90 questionnaire that contains 90 questions. This is used both in the clinical as well as research studies. In a way that each sign of malady show a special psychological condition of the patient that are physical complaints and sensitivity in mutual relationships, fear maladies, depression, aggression and paranoid thinking as well as psychosis.
Different kinds of role playing:
1. Classic role playing (the members of the group chose a role at their wills and play the subject that is suggested at that session).
2. Individual role playing method
3. Mirror role playing (facing oneself or the others) method
4. Group role playing method
5. Role playing method by music
6. role playing method by ballet
7. role playing method by opera
8. role playing method by artificial sleeping
9. role playing method by theatrical and scene arrangements in the presence of the audience
10. role playing method by narrating the story and story oration
11. role playing method by Europe tour and . . . . . . ..
The community of the research

The community of this research includes all the emotional and psychological Janbazan who are diagnosed to have schizophrenia and are hospitalized in the Psychiatric Hospital of Sa’adat Abad.
The sample of the research:
The selection of this hospital for the conduction of this research is due to the acceptance of the conditions required for this research; this hospital has been using the theatrical medication since six years ago as a scientific and applicable method as a method in which no drug is used and so far we have seen meaningful changes in the patients who have come to this center for medication. The sample of this research includes 26 patients who have been selected, after their files have been studied, on the basis of their ability to play a given psychological role; these criteria were:
1. the patient was not at an acute phase of the illness.
2. they had to have the condition of membership in a group as the work is done collectively.
3. After explaining about the process of the work, they have to have the inclination and tendency to work as a group.
4. The individual or the individuals should not intend to go on vacation during the time that the research is conducted.
5. Before the exercises and the research they did not take part in any psychological role playing.

The participants were divided in to two groups composed of thirteen people and then through lottery we have chosen a group as the test group and the other as the witness group.
1. clinical signs: the conscious and the unconscious characteristics of the patient, personal characteristics of the patient
In this research, in order to reach the intended goals, three questionnaires were used:
1. a self – made questionnaire based on the questions related to the statistics of the individuals (demographic) .
2. Psychological Questionnaire SCL 90
3. Graded Scale B . P . R . S .
In the beginning of the work through the self made questionnaire(demographic) information about age, gender, schooling, marital status, number of the children janbazi percentage and the occupational condition before the injury as well as the condition of the patient at the time of trauma (the time when the scene is seen) as well as the period in which he was hospitalized in the hospital was gathered. Graded Scale B . P . R . S . has been done by the clinical psychologist. The issues that were addressed in Graded Scale B . P . R . S . were: semblance, feeling superiority, depression, enmity, pessimism, imaginary behaviors, slow movements, lack of cooperation unusual thinking contents, physical attention, stress, bereavement of feeling, intrinsic unrest, feeling of guilt, emotional pressure, adaptability and lack of attention to the face, motivation and lack of information about the severity of the illness and general improvement.
The SCL 90 that included 90 questions and is used for the evaluation of the psychological signs was administered to the people. In order for the final evaluation of this test two methods were used: evaluation of internal stability and evaluation of stability by re – test and the internal stability was satisfactory for the intended subjects.

Discussion and Conclusion:
The Methods of Data Collection:

The information and the data for these researches are collected in two ways: In a way that the SCL 90 Test is administered to each of the individuals in the test group and the witness group before the execution of the psychological role playing and in the second stage after the execution of the psychological role playing. The SCL 90 Test is again administered to each of the individuals in the test group and the witness group.
The way of presenting the Independent variable:
The first month passed with the investigating of the clinical file of the 26 patients as well as the execution of the questionnaires prepared by the researcher on the statistic information; that was just an effort directed towards the establishment of the relationship with the patients and their understanding as well as filling out the B . P . R . S . by the psychologists. Of the important factors in the establishment of a relation one can name respect, mutual understanding and understanding as well as empathy and unconditional acceptance as well as active listening to the speeches of the other parts.
In the sessions of the interviews the following cases are always considered. After the medical relations are set with the patients the SCL 90 Test will be administered. After that for about a month private and group (2 or three persons together) methods are used to prepare them to participate for the theatrical medication or psychological role playing .
In this method it is possible to make use techniques such as verbal relations, non – verbal relations, behavioral exercises and q – a interviews, educating the roles, behavioral teachings, occupational teachings and cooperative teachings, equalizer techniques, role – exchange techniques, focusing teachings as well as strengthening the sensations as well as emotions, imaginary travel techniques, red – rose techniques as well as . . . . . . . . .

An Example of Theatrical Medication Rehearsal:
The first Session: Introduction:
In introduction the aim is to make the members more familiar with each other as well as the explanation of some regulations as well as programs.
Second Session: Empathy:
In the empathy exercise the goal is to make the members come close together (after war up, cooling down, physical as well as sound exercises are practiced in order to create more empathy among the members.
The third session: Love: Love is a subject that has a special meaning for any one in the world. The axis of love – making is to be dependant on the secondary element. (After warm up from this session on they are asked to talk about the event that has happened to them in that day.
The fourth Session: Suiting or wooing
In this session as it is usual after war up in as much as one of the patients wants to woo the patients are asked to explain their memory of wooing and then they are asked to take a role.
Fifth Session: Hospital: in this session after warm up, the members were asked to talk about their ideas about the hospital and if they had any problem with any member of the group or any of the colleagues, they are asked to play their roles.

The Sixth Session: Family (1) : in this session the task began as it did before and the subject was chosen based on the problems they had in their families.
The Seventh Session: Family (2): In this session the group that had the role of observer in the previous session is involved in a role as the member of the family of the patient.
Eighth Session : Occupation: The occupational play expected by the patients:
Ninth Session: Stealing in the Part: The subject of this session was chosen because of the discussion that took place among the two patients as their cigarettes were stolen.
Tenth Session: The role - play of the people involved in a car accident and then going to the hospital as well as . . . . . .
Eleventh Discussion: The Life Story:
In this stage the psychological role playing was completely done (on the basis of the stories explained by the people and any one of the patients played a role that they liked. In these exercises the presence of a helper is very important in the development of the story of the theater).
The Effects of the Theatrical Medication:
1 . In order to decrease the amount of stress, depression and fear the technique of removing sensitivity is used that is similar to the mutual abnegation method in the behavioral exercises.
2 . Through the Equalizing techniques as well as being placed in the stead of the others the empathy capacity of the people raised.
3 . The generalization technique in the future was used to decrease the stress of the patients and teaching them the methods of facing the future conditions.
4 . The reversion of the roles (changing the roles) would become a method for the catharsis of the angers and at the same time it increases the power of tolerance in the individuals.
5 . Understanding one’s own feeling causes increase in self – reliance and intimacy as well as feeling duty in the group and taking positive point of view about oneself and it decreases emotional performances.
6 . Increasing self – confidence through the use of expressing the creativity as well as personal capabilities; it also increases self – respect.
7 . Role playing leads to the satisfaction of the hidden emotions as well as entertainment and it creates a very nice environment.
8 . Changing the roles is new beginning so that the patient understands his ideas, sensations as well as understanding of the real life while he is playing a reverse role.
9 . Role playing teaching makes individuals prepare for the continuation of the social life and for being free from loneliness.
10 . Equalizing make them familiar with the methods for decreasing stress and for becoming free from psychological challenges and reaching the real life.
11 . Educating the relaxation of the muscle rest and deep breath and thinking about the scenes increase stress.
12. The role playing is a method for the preparation of the patient for the acceptance of the social roles as well as personal and social relations.
13 . The vacant chair technique leads to the catharsis of the internal excitements as well as strengthening of the mental imaginations, self reliance in facing with the scenes which the patient refrains from facing them normally.
14 . Memory play leads to the internal pouring of the excitements and appearance of creativity and innovation in the individual.
15 . Occupational and professional teachings and instructions creates creativity and extemporariness and . . . . . . . .

1 . psychological roles decrease depression among the injured soldiers of the war .
2 . psychological roles decrease anxiety among injured soldiers of the war .
3 . psychological roles decrease aggression among the injured soldiers of the war .
4. psychological roles decrease physical complaints among the injured soldiers of the war.
5 . psychological roles decrease malady fear among the injured soldiers of the war .
6 . psychological roles decrease paranoid thinking among injured soldiers of the war .
7 . psychological roles decrease Paranoid thoughts among the injured soldiers of the war .
8 . psychological roles decrease psychosis among the injured soldiers of the war .

1. Steven , Eddy . Trans. By : Mostafa Tabrizi and Ali Alavi Nia 1371 . The Councilors of Families in Tehran Faravan ; originally published in 1994 .
2. Ashkani , Hamid . Hagh Shenas Hassan . 1382 . Internalization of Psychotherapy through theatrical methods . Jones . Bi Ta. Rosh Pub . Co .
3. Asghari Moghadam , Mohammad Ali , 1361 . Understanding some characteristics of the injured soldiers in the Khozestan War Front . M . A . Dissertation . Not Published.
4. Amraei Majid , 1382 . Theatrical Medication: A new method in rehabilitation of the Neurological Patients in Sa’dat Abad Hospital .
5. Psychological Association of America 1994 . Categorization of the Psychological Disorders and the fourth ed . trans . Nosrat Allah poor Afkari . Tehran Azadeh Pub . Co . .
6. Izadi Sirous . 1360 . Sudden Stresses and the Emotional Consequences . Tehran : Rooz BEh Hospital.
7. Bagheri Yazdi , Saied Abbas Boalheri , Jafar Shah Mohammadi Davood . 137 2 . Investigating the Mutual Effects of the Psychological Disorders in the Rural Areas . Andishe va Raftar Journal 1 : 32 – 41 .
8. Bracket , Scarlett . Trans . Hoshang Azadi VAr 1365 . The Histroy of the World Theater. Vol . 1 . Tehran . Noghreh Pub . Co . introduction .
9. Bernardi , Philip ,Trans: Manijeh Mohammadi 1376 . The Book of Ad Libs in theater . Amir Kabir Pub . Co .
10. Blanner Adam: Trans . Hassan Hagh Shenas and Hamid Ashkani. 1383 . Internalization . Tehran : Rosh Pub . Co .
11. Psychological Stress after the Accident. Dr. E. Ali Poor , Fahimeh Lorestani . The Engineering Research Center and the Medical Center of Tehran . First Ed . Summer 1385 .
12. Theatrical Medication . Heidi Kedas Man And Charles Sheffer . Trans . Soosan Saberi and Parivash Vakili . Agah and Arjoman Pub . Co . 1382 .
13. Dominating Obsession: Lee Barter. Trans . Masood Mohammadi , Leila Koohi and Mohammad Deh Gan Poor. Roshd Pub . Co . 1382 . 1st ed .
14. Stress Disorders. Helen Kenrelli . Trans . By . : Mirous Mobini . Roshd Pub . Co . 1382 . 1st6 Ed .
15. The answers to the common questions of the patients afflicted with Depression. Dr . Ali . Abbas Zade . and Ghorban Ali Asad Allahi . Chahar Bagh Pub . Co . 1379 .
16. The History of the World Theater written by Oscar Bracket and trans . By . Hooshang Azadi . Ghatreh Pub . Co . 1366 . Vol . 1 , 2 , 3 .
17. Poetics. Aristotle. Trans . By : Abd Al – Hussein Zarin Kub . Amir Kabir Pub . Co . 1369 .
18. Ethnography and Artistic Psychology . Written By Dr. Jaber Anasori . Roshd Pub . Co . 1380 .
19. Etemadi , Ahmad . Psychotherapy : Making concepts , execution and research cases . in Cooperation with Janet Hashemi Azar . Ali Mehdi Zadeh . Tehran : Resa Cultural Institute , 1382 .
20. Anesthesia / Psychology . Trans . By : Dr . Barahani .
21. Ansari Mohammad Bagher . Theatrical Medication from birth to evolution . Roozegar No Web Site , 1385 .
22. Banner Adam . Internalization : Psychotherapy by the use Theatrical Medication . Trans . by : Dr . Hassan Hagh Shenas and Dr . Hamid Ashkani . Roshd Pub . Co . 1383 .
23. Poor Afkari Nosrat Allah . The Complete Psychological Dictionary and its Related Firelds . 3rd Ed . Farhang Moaseer Pub . Co . 138 0 .
24. Jalili Saied Ahmad Davoodian . Hartoon . The article of : Investigating the signs in the psychologically ill injured soldiers from the war . Tehran: 1371 .
25. Jones Phil . Theatrical Medication and the Play of Life . Trans . By : Chista Yasrebi . Tehran : Ghatreh Pub . Co . 1383 .
26. Khaki Gholam Reza . Research methodology with an Approach to Writing Thesis . Deraiat Pub . Co . 1378 .
27. Khajeian , Mitra . Investigating the Psychotherapy Elements in Theater and Mourning Sessions in Iran . B . A . Thesis , University of Tarbiat Modares , Faculty of Arts , Direction : 1382 .